Dr Cristina Renzi, winner of the TP Gunton grant, and Professor Pali Hungin, President of the BMA, at the 2016 awards ceremony
Find out about the winners of the 2016 awards:
- Dawkins & Strutt grant for research into psychological therapies in pain and medically unexplained symptoms
- Doris Hillier grant for rheumatism and arthritis research
- H C Roscoe grant for research into the common cold or other viral diseases
- Helen H Lawson grant for research into technologies to assist patient care
- Josephine Landsell grant for heart disease research
- Margaret Temple grant for schizophrenia research
- TP Gunton grant for research into public health relating to cancer
- James Trust grant for asthma research
- The Scholarship Grant for research into outcomes for those who have suffered from sexual abuse
- Vera Down grant for research into neurological disorders
You can find out more about the winners and their projects by clicking through the tabs below.
Dawkins & Strutt
Dr Jeremy Howick BA MSc PhD & Prof Paul Nicholas Aveyard BSc MBBS MRCP MPH MFPH PhD MRCGP FRCGP, University of Oxford
Modifying practitioner empathy and patient expectations to enhance pain treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis
One in five us are in pain and for many the cause of pain is not going to go away. Many of us worry about the side-effects of painkillers, particularly for long-term use. When doctors appear empathetic and deliver hopeful messages, people often feel less anxious about the cause of pain and its future course. This, in turn, releases the body’s natural painkillers in the brain, such as endorphins.
However, there are currently a number of barriers preventing this approach from being employed as standard practice. The main problem is that we don’t know how doctors can express their empathy best, how best to train doctors to behave in this way, and how they can deliver positive but realistic messages.
In this project we will review all of the studies that have tried to train doctors to do this. Using statistical methods to bring all the results together, we will identify the key behaviours doctors need to change and also the most effective and efficient ways of training doctors to behave in this way.
Dr Meghna Jani MSc MBChB MRCP PhD, University of Manchester
Pharmacological biomarkers in the prediction of adverse events and subsequent biologic response in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors
Biologic drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) act by targeting inflammatory molecules in the body. They are usually very effective but, in about 40% where biologics work initially, the treatment stops working a few months later, or patients develop a bad reaction and the drugs have to be stopped.
At present, we do not know in which patients the treatment fails and/or who will get side-effects. In some cases, side-effects are thought to be due to the body producing antibodies to the drug, thereby interfering with how the drug acts.
The proposed study, supported by the Doris Hillier grant, aims to investigate if such antibodies or having high levels of drug in the body can predict serious side effects and/ or future response to the next biologic if initial treatment fails.
To do this, two of the largest national studies recruiting RA patients will be linked to study patients with blood samples who have long-term outcomes recorded. If promising, these tests could be incorporated into clinical practice. The ability to predict certain side-effects and lack of response at an early stage could help treat patients with the right drug as soon as possible, whilst ensuring greater clarity about the probability of benefit and harms to allow informed decision-making.
H C Roscoe
Dr Lynda Coughlan BSc MSc PhD & Prof Adrian Hill DM DPhil FRCP, University of Oxford
Investigation and exploitation of exosomes in the development of novel influenza vaccines with improved immunogenicity
Inadequate immune responses and limited cross-protection against diverse influenza viruses are common failures of current influenza vaccines, leaving vulnerable groups at high-risk of severe infection. Improving immune recognition of influenza proteins or identifying pathways involved in effective vaccine responses could help address these issues.
Exosomes are nano-sized cellular transporters. Following their release from cells, they act as a cellular "postal-system", facilitating cell:cell communication through the transfer of specific proteins and genetic information. As such, exosomes represent an exciting breakthrough in health-innovation and there is tremendous potential for intercepting and manipulating their communications with the immune system to improve vaccines.
We will hijack this exosome "postal-system" by designing novel vaccines to artificially deliver influenza proteins to the exosome-surface. This strategy can increase uptake by specialised cells involved in immunity, dramatically improving immune responses. In a separate approach, we will investigate if genetic material contained within blood-derived exosomes is altered following vaccination. Identifying changes in the contents of exosomes may allow us to design vaccines to specifically stimulate the pathways involved in the generation of effective immune responses.
This study will lead to the design of more effective influenza vaccines for clinical investigation and pandemic preparedness, beneficially impacting patient health, society and the economy.
Helen H Lawson
Dr Andriana Michaelidou MBBS BSc Inter MRCP FRCR MSc, Guys' & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
18F-FDG-PET in guiding dose-painting with intensity modulated radiotherapy in oropharyngeal tumours: A phase I feasibility study (FiGaRO)
Locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer is treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy works by using high energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells. Although many patients are cured by this treatment, not all of the cancer cells are destroyed and, in some, the cancer does come back.
Studies have suggested that more efficient killing of cancer cells, and therefore, better cure rates, can be achieved by increasing the radiotherapy dose. However, in the past, this was not possible due to side effects.
Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) is a relatively new technique that allows better shaping of the radiation dose. By using IMRT we can deliver an intentionally higher dose of radiation (boost) to small selected areas of tumour, whilst keeping doses to organs at risk within acceptable limits.
In this study we use 18F-FDG-PET (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, also known as a ‘PET’ scan) to select areas of tumour that appear more active and may benefit form an IMRT boost. If we prove that this approach is well-tolerated, then we may be able to improve cure rates with this treatment. We will also establish a way of using 18F-FDG-PET in radiotherapy planning that can be used across different tumour sites.
Miss Aphrodite Iacovidou MBChB MSc MRCS (ENT) DOHNS, Imperial College NHS Trust
Study to evaluate the validity of the ThyroSeq V2 gene panel to reduce the need for diagnostic hemithyroidectomy in follicular lesions of the thyroid (Thy3F)
Approximately 15 per cent of the population have thyroid nodules – which are small lumps in the neck area that may be cancerous. Furthermore, half of women and 20 per cent of men over the age of 50 have thyroid nodules.
When these lumps are biopsied up to 15 per cent are identified as ‘suspicious lesions’ called Thy3f, and in most instances require diagnostic lobectomy. However, only 25 per cent of Thy3F lesions are diagnosed as cancer and therefore 75 per cent of patients undergo unnecessary surgery. This has implications both on healthcare resources and patient morbidity.
The University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre Division of Molecular and Genomic Pathology have developed ThyroSeq® next-generation sequencing in an attempt to improve detection of cancer in indeterminate cases of Thy3F lesions. ThyroSeq v.2 detects point mutations and gene fusions in more than 60 thyroid cancer genes.
Our aim is to validate this promising genetic assay and assess if it could improve detection of those with no mutations and prevent unnecessary operations, patient morbidity and healthcare cost.
Dr Cristina Renzi MD SPHM MSc, University College London
Reducing emergency diagnosis of gastro-intestinal cancers: a longitudinal data-linkage study
Cancer survival in the UK is lower than in other European countries. As many as 1 in 4 colorectal cancers, 1 in 3 gastric cancers and 1 in 5 oesophageal cancers are diagnosed following an emergency presentation. Emergency presenters have particularly poor survival. Reducing emergency diagnoses is a key public health target considering the number of affected patients, their poor cancer outcomes and the still unresolved socio-economic inequalities.
The aim of this study is to identify opportunities for reducing emergency diagnoses and provide population-based evidence that can inform interventions for diagnosing cancer earlier and improve cancer outcomes. Our study will include approximately 10,000 colorectal and 4,000 oesophago-gastric cancers diagnosed in England.
We will examine clinical events during the pre-diagnostic period using cancer registration data linked to anonymised primary care and hospital care records. We will take patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics into account.
This research will provide evidence to inform the development of public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing emergency presentations. This will be useful for improving patient experience, quality of care and cancer survival.
The project is a collaboration between University College London, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the University of Exeter.
Prof Peter Bradding BM DM FRCP, University of Leicester
Ion channel regulation of type-2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) biology
Asthma is a common disease affecting 5 million people in the UK. In 10% of patients it is poorly controlled with current therapies. New approaches to treatment are therefore required.
A type of white blood cell called an ILC2 cell has been discovered recently, and these cells are thought to be important for the development of asthma, as well as day-to-day symptoms and exacerbations (attacks). Inhibiting the function of these cells might offer a new and more effective way of treating asthma.
For cells to work normally, they need to move ions such as calcium (Ca2+) and potassium (K+) in and out of the cell. This process is controlled by proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. Many drugs used today in medicine work by blocking ion channels. We believe that blocking ion channels in ILC2 cells may be a very effective way of inhibiting their activities that drive asthma.
The aim of this work is to spend 12 months identifying the ion channels present in human ILC2 cells and the effects of blocking these channels on ILC2 function. This research has the potential to lead to new treatments for asthma within 10 years.
The Scholarship Grant
Dr Andrea Goddard MB BS MSc FRCPCH, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
Meeting the needs of children and their carers following sexual abuse: evaluating experience and outcomes associated with a new model of service delivery
The Havens are specialist centres in London for all those, including children, who have been sexually assaulted and abused. They provide acute medical and psychological care, advocacy and support for victims and help with obtaining evidence for police investigations. An enhanced Havens service for children and young people (CYPHavens) opened in May 2016.
The views of sexually-abused children and their carers are essential to inform and shape the design of services aimed at helping and supporting them. However there is very little information about how children feel about the care they get in services like CYPHavens.
This project will investigate the extent to which children and carers feel able to access, use and engage with the new Havens service model and other services offered, and which features of the service provision enhance or hinder these ends. Research in this area will help us understand how to better meet the needs of sexually abused children.
Dr Benedict Daniel Michael MBChB (Hons) MRCP PhD, University of Liverpool
Identifying immunomodulatory targets to reduce leucocyte infiltration in viral encephalitis
Encephalitis is a devastating disease of brain swelling, characterised by migration of white blood cells (WBCs) into the brain, most commonly due to the cold sore virus. Even with the use of current drug treatment, up to 30% of patients die and most survivors have significant brain-injury.
During my PhD I identified specific inflammatory proteins that were associated with coma and death amongst patients with encephalitis. These proteins were found to be related to the regulation of interleukin-1 and leakiness of the blood-brain barrier, which is responsible for the migration of WBCs entering the brain.
The Vera Down grant will make it possible to build on these findings and to interrogate them in a scientific model. The proposed study will use fluorescent white blood cells to identify key inflammation proteins, and visualise the attraction of these cells within blood vessels and into the brain in real-time. Establishing this will mean that we can test blocking these inflammation proteins to reduce white blood cell migration into the brain and ultimately improve patient outcome.